Parts of A Computer and Their Functions Explained

Computers are electronic machines that are working through a combination of hardware and software. Here we are going to discuss its hardware. Computer hardware is the collection of all physical elements or parts used in the computer. Each element has its own functionality.

Based on the type of use, we divide the computer parts into two types.

  1. Compulsory Computer Parts and
  2. Optional Computer parts

Compulsory Computer Parts :

By the name itself, we find these parts are the compulsory ones in the PC build. If we miss any of these components or parts, our PC is incomplete, and it displays nothing on the monitor.

Here is a list of compulsory parts of the desktop computer.

  • Monitor
  • CPU cabinet
  • Motherboard
  • Processor
  • GPU
  • Cooling fans
  • RAM
  • Hard disk
  • SMPS
  • Connecting cables and
  • Keyboard and Mouse
  • Speakers

Some of these parts are unnecessary for laptops like CPU cabinets, connecting cables, etc. We can discuss the laptop parts with another decent article.

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The monitor is nothing but a display on the computer. We use different monitors a gamer needs a high-frequency refresh rate monitor, an office employee needs a basic monitor, etc.

Dell monitor
Dell monitor

The latest monitors are coming with the best features like, multiple ports like USB, HDMI, DVI, Ethernet, etc. A monitor with different ports has different functional capabilities.

CPU Cabinet

The CPU cabinet is used to protect the internal parts of the computer like the motherboard, processor, RAM, ROM, GPU, etc. We consider this as the compulsory part of most PC builds. But in some rare situations, if a PC is internally built like a wall-mounted, wall-behind, or table-flat PC, then you don’t need a CPU cabinet.

Also, there is a strong reason behind the use of CPU cabinets in our computers, which is cooling. CPU parts are designed to work under specific operating temperatures only. So we need to cool the CPU parts.

For this, we are using two types of cooling systems. Air and Liquid cooling. Air cooling is the most popular and cheap method we are using to cool down our CPU.


A board on your PC has a mother-like responsibility. Hence, we call that board a motherboard. The motherboard is like a heart to the PC. It has an entire record of the functional capabilities of your PC.

ATX motherboard

This is my motherboard Zebronics H55 motherboard. It supports only DDR3 RAM. If I put DDR4 RAM sticks in place of DDR3 RAM, then the PC will not turn on. Likely, it supports SSD, but not M.2.

Every motherboard on this planet has some limitations. The difference is some motherboards have high specification capabilities and others have low specifications.

My suggestion is to choose the best motherboard for your PC with some future upgrades. If you want to increase your RAM in the future, you will never get disappointed then.


A processor is just like a brain to a computer. It has the capability of performing the work or action on your computer. It is also called the CPU (Central Processing Unit). Intel and Ryzen processors are in competition these days.

Along with the motherboard, the processor also plays a key role in defining the capability of a computer. Each processor has billions of transistors. Engineers are using Integrated Circuit technology to design processors.

I recommend you select the latest version of the processor as much as you can. Because it has the best performance capability compared to the older versions.

Intel i7 processor
Intel i7 Processor

My system processor is an Intel i7. It is good for my work. Choose the type of processor that is best for your work.


GPU is also called a Graphics Processing Unit. In the olden days, computers didn’t need graphic cards to work. But in this generation, motherboards require GPUs.


This is the compatible GPU with the motherboard on my PC. If you want a graphic card under budget, I suggest that you go to this one. Make sure that your motherboard supports the GPU that you are gonna buy.

We use GPUs for different purposes like playing games, editing, enhancing screen performance, etc. Overall, GPU helps to improve the system’s performance.

Stock cooler

We just can’t ignore the cooling process of the computer. However, the CPU is performing heavily while using the computer. If the temperature of the CPU exceeds the operating levels, then it may lead to damage to the CPU or motherboard. In the worst case, damage occurs to both.

We know the two types of cooling (air and liquid). Liquid cooling is my best suggestion in the case of a stock cooler. The CPU needs more cooling than any other part of the computer. So, we need to provide the best cooling for it.

Antec stock cooler
CPU stock cooler

I changed my stock cooler from frontech to Antec stock cooler. Now, it is working fine with less noise. Go with RGB, if you want your system colorful.


RAM is a type of memory storage device in a computer. Its full form is Random Access Memory. The more RAM your system has and the more work it could do. You can see my PC RAM stick below.

DDR3 RAM stick

Choose the latest version of RAM for your PC to get the best performance. The performance of two 4GB RAM sticks is better than one 8GB RAM stick. So choose accordingly.

The RAM sticks are sensitive, so be careful. Check the RAM stick insertion properly before going to turn on the computer. A faulty RAM can cause a Blue Screen Of Death (BSOD).


ROM is nothing but the general storage of a computer. We have different types of ROM devices like Hard disks, SSDs, SD cards, Pen Drives, etc.

The entire data that we store in a computer is in the form of ROM (Read Only Memory).

Hard disk
Seagate 1 TB hard disk

Even the Operating System in your computer is in a ROM device. I am using Kingston SSD for my Operating System instead of a Hard disk because of better performance. And hard disk for recorded videos and other high-volume files.

My suggestion is to use at least an SSD or M.2 for storage. So you will never find a lag performance while reading and writing your data.


Switched Mode Power Supply also called SMPS is used to convert the input current and supply its output current to other components of the computer like the motherboard, fans, front panel, etc.


We have a significant advantage with SMPS. It acts as a Converter (AC input to DC output) and also Chopper (DC input to DC output). The SMPS can protect our PC from a sudden power drop.

Keyboard and Mouse

The keyboard and Mouse are a combination. Both are used to give input to the system. No matter how much cost do we put on the PC build? Without a Keyboard and Mouse, we do nothing.

Keyboard and Mouse
Keyboard and Mouse

My keyboard is a Logitech MK275. It is a writer-friendly keyboard that I found on Amazon. The performance of this keyboard is too good. For gamers, this is not the recommended one.


In some works, speakers are not a compulsory requirement in a PC. But, I consider speakers to be a compulsory part of the computer because of so many advantages. We can hear our friends and family’s voices while talking to them on Skype. We can hear music, watch movies, etc.

Speakers are of different types and earphones and headphones are also a type of speakers. The speaker and microphone are two different things. Don’t get confused.

Optional Computer Parts:

We have seen the basic parts of the computer, and also they are the compulsory parts. Along with this, we can add so many other hardware elements to the computer setup based on our requirements.

For example, a printer is not a compulsory part of the computer. But most people use printers as their primary element in their work. Not only printers but there are also so many other optional parts like fingerprint scanners, document scanners, external hard disks, dual monitors, etc. These components are called Optional Computer Parts.


A printer is a machine we used to print something on paper. There are so many printers out there. Based on the type of use, you can find the perfect one for you.

I do not have a printer. And I don’t need it at all. All my work is completely based on the compulsory parts of the computer. Also, my suggestion is to buy a printer only if you need one. It reduces the cost of the PC build.

Dual Monitor:

A dual Monitor is just an extra monitor. Some people use dual monitors or multiple monitors based on their work and requirements. A gaming YouTuber must need a dual monitor, but a blogger doesn’t.

Let’s see some other optional computer parts.

Wi-Fi adapter:

A Wi-Fi adapter is an electronic device that is used to connect the internet service to the system. Some motherboards are coming with a built-in Wi-Fi feature. But a mid-range motherboard doesn’t have a Wi-Fi connectivity option. Find out how the Wi-Fi adapter is working on a PC.

wifi and bluetooth adapters
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth adapters

Bluetooth adapter:

If your PC wants to connect a device with Bluetooth, but your motherboard doesn’t support it. In that situation, we use an adapter that connects other devices like Bluetooth headphones, earphones, speakers, etc to our PC.

Bluetooth Speaker :

The Bluetooth speaker is also an optional computer component. Whether you use it or not, doesn’t have a problem.

Let’s see the parts of the computer in a table format. From this table, you can get to know which one is the compulsory part and which one is optional.

Compulsory Computer PartsOptional Computer Parts
MonitorBluetooth Speakers
CPU cabinetDual Monitors
MotherboardBluetooth adapter
ProcessorWi-Fi adapter
Stock CoolerFingerprint Scanner
RAMPen Drives
Keyboard and MouseProjector
list of computer parts

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Conclusion :

What do you think? Is this the end of the list? No, there is no end to this list because technology is updating every day. And we found new electronic gadgets which are designed for unique works.

Feel free to find out how the computer is working, so that you can easily understand the functioning of all these components.

Which optional computer part do you have? Let me know your comment. We are on YouTube to provide Tech information like this in a video format.

If you like this information, share it with your friends and family.

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